As I mentioned before, hydroquinone is really effective but also dangerous to your body. Scientists is continuing their research for skin whitening products. According to current research, there are some substances can be used as safer alternatives to hydroquinone, even tough they are not as effective.
- Alpha Arbutin: This kind of substances is the most effective substitute to hydroquinone nowadays. It's biosynthetic and water soluble. There are no known dangerous effect of alpha arbutin. It works by inhibit the melanin growth in human skin, so it's effective to lighten dark spots or patches in human skin.
- Azelaic Acid: Azelaic acid found on wheat, rye, and barley. Besides the skin lightening effect, azelaic acid also helps reduce acnes and some other kind of skin inflammation. This substances best for acne prone skin, because it reduce skin redness caused by inflammation. But azelaic acid is not really effective for dark spots.
- Kojic Acid: Kojic Acid is extracted from Aspergillus, Acetobacter, and Penicillium. There are no reports of carcinogenic effect of Kojic Acid, but some experience iritation. This substance suitable for lightening dark spots.
- Malic Acid: Malic Acid is generated during fruit metabolism and occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables. Malic acid is best for skin redness and improving skin conditions.